Milfer Farm: Horses for Sale [an error occurred while processing this directive]

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1: WHAT IS PASSIVE IMMUNITY?
In general terms passive immunity is the immune protection given to anewborn from its mother. MORE>>>

2: WHAT IS COLOSTRUM AND DOES IT VARY AMONG MARES?
Colostrum is the mare’s first milk.It is rich in nutrition buts also contains an important source of immune protection for the foal in the form of proteins, co-factor antibiotics and immunoglobulins.
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3: WHY ISN'T MY MARE CYCLING?
Mares are seasonally polyestrus which means they only cycle during part of the year.It is controlled by photoperiod. MORE>>>

4: WHAT IS COLOSTRAL IgG AND WHY IS IT IMPORTANT?
IgG stands for immunoglobulin G.There are also other colostral immunogloblins (ie. IgA and IgM).It is present in the mare’s first milk called colostrum.MORE>>>

5: COLOSTRAL BANK
Colostrum is the first milk and is rich in protein and immune ingredients.An important fact is that the quantity and quality of a mare’s colostrum may vary from mare to mare and year to year.MORE>>>

6: UTERINE CULTURE AND CYTOLOGY
I can’t overemphasize the importance of evaluating uterine cytology with the mare’s uterine culture.Several bacteria in the uterus are fastidious.
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7: USE OF THE ULTRASOUND BEFORE AND AFTER BREEDING
Most everyone in the equine industry appreciates the use of the trans-rectal ultrasound exam for early detection of pregnancy, however, its use before and after breeding can be very rewarding.MORE>>>

8: WHAT DOES THE PRESENCE FLUID IN THE UTERUS MEAN BEFORE BREEDING?
The presence of fluid in the uterus before breeding usually suggests a problem.The presence is detected through the use of an ultrasound.MORE>>>

9: THE USE OF OXYTOCIN WITH YOUR MARE
Oxytocin is a hormone that has several benefits for the mare that is being bred.MORE>>>

10: FOAL HEAT BREEDING
This is a hotly debated management decision.In general, I discourage it.The reason is the statistics show the live foal rate is less than 50% with foal heat breeding. MORE>>>

11: VAGINAL EXAMS OF MARES
Performing a manual and visual exam of the vagina is a valuable procedure in a reproductive exam in the mare.
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12: WHAT DOES IT MEAN WHEN A MARE “POOLS URINE”
It is a situation where every time the mare urinates, some urine refluxes back and collects in the vagina.MORE>>>

13: MAIDEN MARES AND STALLIONS
Sometimes mating maiden animals can be challenging. Patience is crucial. Intuitively, a maiden mare may not like the idea of a 1500 pound snorting locomotive trying to get on top of her.MORE>>>

14: OLDER MARE
Older mares can be challenging to consistently get a live foal on the ground. Especially in this group the use of the ultrasound before and after breeding has documented subtle uterine changes that need to be addressed.MORE>>>

15: ULTRASOUND UMBILICUS OF FOALS
The umbilicus of every mammal is very important, and in the horse it is no different. At foaling, the umbilicus needs to be carefully severed, disinfected and monitored. At Milfer we have added one more step.MORE>>>

16: VITAMIN E AND SELENIUM
Both vitamin E and Selenium are important co-factors in the immune system, reproduction and muscle performance. Usually the topic of Vitamin E-SE are discussed together because they are interrelated.MORE>>>

17: INDUCING OVULATION
The protocols to induce ovulation are an important management tool.All the protocols employ the use of some form of exogenous hormones.The reason is to synchronize breeding with ovulation.MORE>>>

18: TWINS IN MARES
It may surprise some mare owners that mares have a double ovulation up to 20% of the time.The good new is the mare has a very efficient way of dealing with this problem all by herself, and has been doing so without our help for centuries.MORE>>>

19: FOAL HEAT SCOURS
Foal heat scours is a transient episode of foal diarrhea that usually coincides with the mare’s first heat or estrus cycle after foaling, thus around 7-10 days of age.MORE>>>

20: FOAL LEG DEFORMITY
Textbooks are dedicated to this topic.Still I am always impressed with what nature will do to correct an angular limb deformity.There is an important postulate in human and veterinary medicine which states “form follows function”.MORE>>>

21: R. EQUI IN FOALS
Rhodococcus equiis a bacteria that is ubiquitous.It is shed in the manure of herbivores.Similar to clostridium, it is everywhere in the soil.What is interesting is this bacteria doesn’t bother adult horses, but it can affect foals.MORE>>>

22: DEWORMING
Internal parasites are opportunistic and can cause interference with nutrition and performance.It is unrealistic to try to be 100% parasite free especially with animals that graze.MORE>>>

23: NEWBORN FOALS AND ENEMAS
In general, I believe every newborn foal needs an enema.My rationale is as follows.The meconium (first manure) can be hard as a rock.Secondly, there could be yards of it.MORE>>>

24: FOAL ENTROPION
Entropion is a condition whereby the eyelid roles inward.It could be one or both.It could be upper or lower eyelids.It usually occurs in the first 3-4 days after birth.MORE>>>

25: WHY DO A 35 DAY PREGNANCY EXAM?
The main reason is that on or about day 35 of pregnancy, the mare produces an important hormone from the uterus which helps maintain pregnancy.MORE>>>

26: HOW CAN AN UTERINE LAVAGE HELP A MARE?
A uterine lavage is a aseptic procedure whereby a sterile solution, usually physiologic saline is infused into the uterus and then allowed to flow out via a sterile catheter placed through the mare's cervix. The reason this procedure can be helpful is that it can cleanse a uterus which is inflamed or infected.MORE>>>

27: EQUINE STOMACH ULCERS
Numerous studies have shown the prevalence of stomach ulcers in horses, especially foals is significant. The problem is these ulcers often go undetected. Diet, stress, sickness can all be contributors to the cause of ulcers.MORE>>>

28: FOAL DIARRHEA
First it is important to understand that diarrhea is not a diagnosis. It is a clinical sign just as a fever is. As with any young animal, diarrhea can lead to complications. Thus it is important that fluid intake compensates any fluid loss.MORE>>>

29:WHEN IS IT SAFE TO SHIP A PREGNANT MARE?
I don't think there is a right or wrong answer to this question. Physiologically, the placenta is complete at day 50-55 or pregnancy, thus my usual answer is any time after that time. There are exceptions. MORE>>>

30:DOES MY MARE NEED A CASLICK?
A caslick is a surgical procedure where the top half or two thirds of the vulva is closed. In general, if I had one dollar to spend to prevent reproductive problems, it would go toward the cost of a caslick procedure. MORE>>>

31:CAN FOALS GET STOMACH ULCERS?
Yes! It is a serious problem as it is with adult horses. No matter what your farm set up, foals are under stress. Stress could come from the weather, other horses, convalescing any sickness. MORE>>>


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Dr. Jon Davis Owner/Resident Veterinarian ~ 1287 County Highway 3, Unadilla, NY 13849
(607) 369-9100 ~ Fax (607)369-2406 ~ 607-287-4216, Melissa Frear, Farm Manager
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